A Nanoscale C-Coated Aluminum Foil Current Collector for High-Power Lithium-Ion Batteries
Kevin Eberman, Ph.D., Product Development Manager, 3M

In lithium-ion batteries, the interface between the aluminum foil current collector and the positive electrode can, in some cases, make a large contribution to the total cell impedance. This is especially the case for electrode materials with relatively high electrode resistance, such as LiFePO4. The reason for the high resistance at the interface is due to the large constriction resistance of the electrode materials on the surface of the hard aluminum foil substrate. The constriction resistance can be minimized with a carbon-coating on the surface of the aluminum foil, which was found to benefit cells made with LiFePO4 electrodes. Typically, carbon-coated aluminum foil has a coating in the range of 1-3 μm, which will have an effect on the cell volumetric capacity. In this talk, we present a current collector with a nanoscale carbon-coating layer.8:40 High Energy Density, Long-Life Li-S Batteries for Aerospace Applications.
Solvent Free Electrode Manufacturing for Lithium Ion Batteries
Mike Eskra, President, Eskra Technical Products, Inc.

The increasing market for ultracapacitors in bus, truck, train and heavy equipment applications, demands rigorous design of both cells and modules. The paper will discuss the requirement for each application, test results and analysis.



Battery Components for High Energy and High Safety Application
Sebastien Patoux, Ph.D., Research Scientist, CEA-Liten, France

With 250 people working on Lithium batteries, CEA-LITEN institute covers various activities from materials R&D to pack manufacturing and integration into vehicles and other systems. In the presentation, we will focus on our latest developments on active materials and electrolytes for high energy Li-ion and Li/Sulfur battery giving some examples at cell level. We will also address our strategies to reinforce battery safety, and more specifically, our ongoing results on gel and solid electrolytes.


Ionic Liquid Electrolytes for Li-ion Battery Applications
Surya Moganty, Ph.D., Director, Technology, NOHMS Technologies, Inc.

NOHMs Technologies is developing non-flammable, non-volatile, ionic liquid-hybrid electrolytes that overcome safety concerns in Li-ion batteries. Ionic liquids (ILs) are a unique class of organic salts with negligible vapor pressure, non-flammability, good room-temperature ionic conductivity, wide electrochemical windows, and favorable chemical and thermal stability. They are ideal candidates for safer electrolytes in Li-ion batteries. While ILs show great promise, their use as electrolytes for Li-ion batteries have been limited for two reasons: first, the fraction of the ionic conductivity of the electrolyte arising from mobile lithium ions (i.e. the lithium transference number) is typically low, making cells using IL electrolytes prone to polarization; Second, most ILs exhibit only moderate total ionic conductivity at and below freezing temperatures. NOHMs strategy for designing ILs with enhanced Li+ transference numbers and widening the operation liquid temperature range is to reinforce the materials with inorganic filler particles that interact selectively with the cation and/or anion species. Tethering ILs to nanoparticles and crafting electrolytes based on the single-component, self-suspended materials or suspensions of the tethered-ILs in an IL or other host provides a path towards IL-based electrolytes with higher lithium transference numbers and improved stability. These hybrid electrolytes simultaneously overcome the poor thermal & electrochemical stability and safety problems that have plagued lithium battery electrolytes for years while still maintaining high conductivity. They provide a platform for engineering electrolytes with both chemical and interfacial tunability that beyond improving safety, expand the range of available battery form factors.
Ionic Liquids, The Good, The Bad and The Ugly
Victor Koch, Ph.D., President, Covalent Associates, Inc.


Characterization and Comparison among Different Lithium-Based Batteries: LiFeMgPO4, LiFePO4 and Lithium-Polymers
Francisco Sergi, Ph.D., Researcher, National Research Council of Italy, Institute of Advanced Energy Technologies, Italy

Electrochemical storage systems are increasingly employed in stationary, automotive and naval applications. The lithium-ion battery is the technology that now has the best features and future development prospects. Battery details that allow a right choice in relation to final application are not always available in literature. Among the most used Lithium technologies in stationary and automotive sectors, the CNR-ITAE of Messina (Italy) has selected three different Lithium technologies: Lithium-Iron-Magnesium-Phosphate (LiFeMgPO4), Lithium-Iron-Phosphate(LiFePO4) and Lithium-Polymers to be tested and compared. Different characterization tests were carried out in order to investigate the features of each technology. In particular, the work reports the results coming from tests where different C-rate values were applied, cycling tests with fast charging and discharging using the maximum admitted power, tests with deep charging using different C-rate values, relax tests and working tests without a BMS (Battery Management System). The batteries were subjected to different load profiles mainly used in stationary and automotive applications. These tests have allowed our group to analyze the batteries’ performance in different load conditions and to point out electrochemical performance reductions or packing damage caused by tests reported above. A final analysis was carried out, comparing the main performance indicators (Capacity, Amperometric and Energetic Efficiency, working temperatures, etc.)