Rechargeable Energy Storage System Safety Performance and Modeling
Ted Miller, Senior Manager, Energy Storage and Materials Strategy and Research, Ford Motor Company

Advanced lithium ion rechargeable energy storage systems (RESS) are critical to vehicle electrification. However, there are technology challenges which must be mastered in order to ensure RESS safety. This talk will consider an approach to assessing RESS safety performance within the context of vehicle safety qualification, testing results, and plans for safety performance modeling tools. The range of efforts undertaken by the Ford Energy Storage and Materials Research Team will be presented.




R&D Activities and Market Growth of Advanced Batteries for xEV in China
Jiqiang Wang, Ph.D., China Industrial Association of Power Sources


BASF Advanced Li-Ion Battery Materials and NiMH Battery Technology
Michael Fetcenko, Ph.D., Vice President, Managing Director, BASF Battery Materials – Ovonic

BASF is uniquely positioned as a global supplier to the battery industry with major investments in NCM and LFP cathode materials and electrolytes for Li-Ion batteries, as well as licensing of NiMH battery technology and development of next generation Li-S chemistry. This presentation will highlight recent advances in NiMH technology, already in widespread use for consumer and hybrid vehicle applications with over 7 million vehicles on the road since introduction in 1997, demonstrating extraordinary safety, cost and durability.



Research and Application Challenges in Lifetime Requirements of Automotive Batteries
Odysseas Paschos, Ph.D., Research Battery Technology, BMW, Germany

BMW is strongly committed to sustainable mobility and has dedicated a great effort in research and development efforts to enable innovative technologies in future Li-Ion automotive cells. One of the main hurdles that needs to be overcome to realize future materials is their lifetime requirements. This talk will outline and showcase the efforts of BMW to understand ageing and cycling fade mechanisms of materials currently used in Li-Ion cells, as well as predict the potential of future candidates.


Development of Highly Durable and Long Life Ni-MH Batteries for Energy Storage Systems
Shigekazu Yasuoka, Ph.D., Engineering Division, FDK Twicell Co., Ltd., Japan

FDK is the only Ni-MH manufacturer in Japan and is responsible for the highest advancements in Ni-MH technology. We are developing more high durability and long life cell using optimized CoOOH layer nickel hydroxide and other technology. In this presentation, we introduce highly durable and long life cell for energy storage system.



Electrochemistry and Transport Phenomena of the Lithium-Silicon System—Modeling and Open Questions
Mark Verbrugge, Ph.D., Director, Chemical and Materials Systems Laboratory, General Motors

We first address the influences on the automotive industry that motivate the pursuit of high capacity negative electrode materials, including Li-Si. Thin-film electrodes are particularly helpful in terms of clarifying phenomena of the Li-Si electrode in the absence of binders, conductive diluents, and other complications associated with porous electrodes. The approach we take comprehends the systems thermodynamics, charge-transfer reactions at the electrode surface, irreversible thermodynamics for the treatment of transport with the electrode, and volume changes during electrode operation. Last, we highlight the most pressing open questions that must be addressed to better understand the Li-Si system.


Boston-Power Ensemble™ Module System for EV Battery Packs
Richard Chamberlain, Ph.D., Chief Technology Officer, Boston Power

Boston-Power has developed the highly configurable Ensemble™ Module System, a series of interconnected Li-ion Swing cells in a robust mechanical enclosure that enables advanced module and battery pack designs. This solution combines the safety and performance advantage of Boston-Power’s Swing cell technology with the high capacity, ease of implementation, and cost effectiveness required for large format energy systems such as EV and ESS platforms.





Development of Carbon-Coated SiO Anodes for Lithium-Ion Battery
Jian-Guo Ren, Ph.D., Director, BTR New Energy Technology Institute, BTR New Energy Materials Inc., China

Developing new cathode and anode materials with increased energy density and extended cycle life is of critical importance to address the ever-increasing energy storage demands. Graphite has a theoretical capacity of 372 mAh g-1 and is lithiated only by Li+ intercalation process. In contrast, Si, the second most abundant element in the Earth’s crust, has a maximum capacity of 3579 mAh g-1 because a Si atom can accommodate 3.75 Li atoms at room temperature. In this work, SiO-carbon composite was prepared by pitch solid-phase coating and chemical vapor deposition gas-phase coating, respectively. Uniformly carbon-coated SiO particles (D50 = 6±1 μm) were successfully prepared and used as anode materials for lithium ion battery, which shows a reversible capacity of 1600 mAh/g and an initial Coulombic efficiency of 77%. The preparation details, electrochemical performance and surface structure’s evolution with cycles will be discussed in this presentation


3M Si-Alloy Materials for Commercially-Relevant High Energy Density Full Cells
Kevin Eberman, Ph.D., Product Development Manager, 3M

3M has been engaged in the study of alloys (Si, Sn, etc...) as anodes for Li ion batteries for over 15 years. During this time 3M’s interest in Si-based anode materials has grown from laboratory experiments to MT/mth capability. 3M’s development strategy focuses on low surface area, nanocrystalline or amorphous active/inactive alloys, which are compatible with existing battery infrastructure and enable full cells with high energy densities and long cycle life. 3M is now producing Si-based alloys at full scale. This talk will focus on the performance achieved by commercially-relevant full cells with negative electrodes comprising 3M Si alloys.



High Rate Lithium Rich Layered MNC Cathode Materials for Li-Ion Batteries
K.M. Abraham, Ph.D., Research Professor, Northeastern University Center for Renewable Energy Technologies, Northeastern University

Lithium-rich layered metal oxides of the formula xLi2MnO3.(1-x)LiMO2, where M is a transition metal and 0<x<1, represent the next generation of cathode materials for Li-ion batteries with capacities of 250 – 300 mAh/gram. However, poor rate capability and excessive capacity fade during cycling have limited their practical implementation. We report here several breakthrough discoveries to overcome these limitations, including: i) judicious modification of the crystal structure through metal doping; ii) preparation of a material with open porous morphology and higher electronic conductivity via a new synthetic method; and, iii) a layered electrode architecture utilizing multi-wall carbon nanotubes. Discharge capacities of 200, 250, and 300 mAh/g at C, C/4 and C/20 rates, respectively, and little capacity fade during long-term cycling, properties unprecedented for this class of Li-ion cathode materials, will be reported.


Cell Performance Evaluation of Commercial Si Materials
Hang Shi, Ph.D., Chief Technology Officer, Tianjin Lishen Battery, Ltd., China

Several commercially available Si-based materials have been evaluated in lithium ion cells to identify the usefulness of these materials as anode in lithium ion cell. Si contained anodes is one of most actively researched topic because of its potential to increase cell energy density beyond graphite.



Progress and Challenges in Designing High Capacity Cathodes for Lithium-Ion Cells
Michael Thackeray, Ph.D., Distinguished Fellow and Senior Scientist, Electrochemical Energy Storage Department, Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory

Composite cathode structures with layered and spinel domains are of interest for arresting the voltage fade that occurs when high capacity (~250 mAh/g), lithium- and manganese-rich ‘layered-layered’ xLi2MnO3•(1-x)LiMO2 (M=Mn, Ni, Co) cathodes are cycled in lithium-ion cells. These Li2MnO3-based electrodes require an electrochemical activation step above 4.5 V that involves the participation of the oxygen ions during the initial redox reactions of the cell. Control of the composition and the spinel content in ‘layered-layered-spinel’ cathode structures, can enhance the capacity of the electrode, while regulating the electrochemical voltage window of the cells can significantly reduce voltage fade. Recent advances in designing cathode materials by seeking a compromise between capacity, cycling stability and voltage fade will be discussed; the relationship that exists between the reactions of these cathode materials in lithium-ion cells and those that occur in transition metal oxide electrode/electrocatalyst materials in Li-O2 cells will be highlighted.
Implementation of High Capacity Cathode Material in High Power and in High Energy Li-Ion Cells
Suresh Sriramulu, Ph.D., Chief Technology Officer, CAMX Power, LLC

CAMX Power is commercializing its CAM-7 cathode material with state-of-the-art capacity and characteristics that render it an attractive option for high energy portable applications, EV applications and high power start-stop applications. It is now being evaluated for implementation in each of these areas. In this presentation, we will discuss key attributes of material development and properties for each of these applications and describe commercial implementation activities.



Development of Ultra-Light Lithium-Air, Lithium-Water, and Lithium-Sulfur Batteries based on Protected Lithium Metal Electrodes
Steve Visco, Ph.D., Chief Executive Officer and Chief Technology Officer, PolyPlus Battery Company

In the early 2000’s PolyPlus Battery Company invented water-stable, solid electrolyte protected lithium metal electrodes. This enabled the development of unique high energy density batteries utilizing lithium metal in combination with aqueous electrolytes. Since that time PolyPlus has installed a pilot line in its Berkeley, California facility to fabricate protected lithium electrodes (PLEs) using semi-automated production tools. PolyPlus is currently developing rechargeable aqueous lithium-sulfur batteries that we project will deliver energy densities in the range of 700 Wh/l and 400 Wh/kg. All of these advanced technologies use a protected lithium electrode core.


Lithium Sulfur Batteries: Challenges and Prospects
Arumugam Manthiram, Ph.D., Director, Texas Materials Institute, Director, Materials Science and Engineering Program, University of Texas at Austin

Sulfur offers an order of magnitude higher capacity than the conventional insertion-compound cathodes, but the commercialization of lithium-sulfur batteries has been hampered by various challenges. This presentation will focus on high-performance sulfur-carbon nanocomposite cathode structures, novel cell configurations with interlayers, and coated separators to realize high electrochemical utilization and good static and dynamic stability with lithium-sulfur batteries.

Next Generation Batteries with High Energy Density and Better Control
Yimin Zhu, Ph.D., CTO, OneD Material LLC

OneD Material, LLC has proven a battery technology based on Si nanowire-on-graphite composite anode (SiNANOde™). Combining our SiNANOde technology and high capacity cathode we have demonstrated high energy density and good cycle life in lithium ion cells. However, it was recognized that the cell performance faded faster, for example, ca. 10%, in the first 50 cycles though a desired electrolyte has been used to form appropriate and stable SEI on silicon-carbon anode. Once the cell becomes stable there is only ca. 10% fading in the following several hundreds of cycles. It is critical to design a unique diagnosis method to accurately monitor the cell operation, e.g. anode and cathode potentials during battery operation and cycling. More importantly, a novel cell design is required so that a cell can be initially cycled by controlling anode potential or/and cathode potential to avoid mis-cycling a cell with high polarization and to mitigate gas generation. Consequently, a stable SEI can be quickly formed and then the cell can be operated in a regular full cell mode that can be charged and discharged in an appropriate voltage window, which is able to realize high energy density under a safe control. We will discuss a pouch cell design strategy, which accelerates cell conditioning to quickly achieve a stable performance via a safe approach. Therefore, the high energy density Li ion battery can be a safer device for its applications. At the same time, the cycling performance can be dramatically improved.
Development of Lithium Iron Phosphate Cathode Materials for Super Long Life Lithium Ion Battery
Takahiro Matsuyama, Supervisor, Material and Energy Technology Laboratories, Sharp Corporation, Japan

In order to extend the cycle life of LIB, we have used first principal calculations to investigate the effect of various substitute elements into LiFePO4(LFP). These calculations indicate that certain compositions reduce the volume change, and low volume change LFP enhances the cell cycle life remarkably. The discharge performance of substituted LFP at 0.1C and 1.0C are almost same as LFP.



New High Capacity Silicon-Graphene Anode for Li-Ion Batteries
Rob Privette, Ph.D., Vice President, Energy Markets, XG Sciences

XG Sciences (XGS) is launching a second generation of its SiG silicon-graphene anode material. The new generation of material delivers substantial improvements in cycle life and volumetric expansion compared to the first generation material. The new anode incorporates several changes to the material physical properties and manufacturing process that are responsible for the performance improvements. This presentation will include details of the new SiG nanocomposite anode material, dispersion and mixing developments using industrial scale equipment and full cell cycling performance information.
Lithium Ion Battery Separators Compared Across Cathode Chemistries
Brian Morin, Ph.D., President, Dreamweaver International

Different types of battery separators used in lithium ion batteries are compared, highlighting formation, self-discharge, rate capability and cycle life across different cathode types, including LFP, NMC, LMO and LCO. Testing: Cells were tested for formation behavior, self-discharge, rate capability and cycle life. Results: The results will be compared showing the different performance behavior for all of the separator types across different cathode chemistry.




Progress in Lithium Ion Chemistries for Specialty and Mobility Applications
Thomas Greszler, Chemistry Development Manager, Saft

As Lithium Ion has matured as a technology, it has pushed into a wider range of applications and environments. The design challenges of Lithium ion chemistries for extreme temperature range applications, high reliability applications, and extended fast rate cycle applications will be discussed.


China’s Answer to The Gigafactory
Henry Mao, Ph.D., CEO, Youlion Battery Ltd., China

Reducing battery cost to levels affordable by mass markets is critical to the success of electric vehicles. Over the past decade, China has become the world’s leader in lithium-ion manufacturing, creating huge cost-efficiencies across a vertically integrated, domestically-sourced supply chain. This talk will describe a new lower-cost cell technology and a ½ GWhr factory, that Youlion Battery Ltd., recently completed.



Market and Technology Overview on Automotive Start-Stop and Mild-Hybrid Batteries
Franz Kruger, Senior Advisor, Roland Berger Strategy Consultants

This presentation will cover global market forecast on automotive batteries, start-stop battery technologies, mild-hybrid battery technologies, future trends and market forecast on xEV powertrains.


The Drive for Higher Power in Vehicle Electrification
Patrick Hurley, Ph.D., Chief Technology Officer, A123 Systems, LLC

A123 has always focused on Power, Safety, and Life across a broad range of products in the transportation, commercial, power tool, and grid industries. This presentation will highlight new approaches, leveraging success in motorsports, HEV, and power tool segments to accelerate chemistries which will be excel in the high power Start-Stop arena.



PANEL DISCUSSION: Giga Battery Manufacturing: The Wave of the Future?
Moderator: Ralph Brodd, Ph.D., President, Broddarp of Nevada
Panelists: Henry Mao, Ph.D., CEO, Youlin Battery, Ltd., China
John Zhang, Ph.D., CTO, Celgard
Joe Fisher, Vice President, A123 Systems, LLC
John Wozniak, Ph.D., President, Energy Storage and Power Consulting

This panel discussion will explore the benefits and pitfalls of giga battery manufacturing. The assembled expert panel will focus on the following areas:
    Battery Cost
    Battery Life
    Cell Costs
    Manufacturing Processes – US vs World
    Safety and Reliability
    Work Force Training